Emergence of electronic commerce
the appearance of the internet in the economic field at the end of the 1990s led to a real upheaval in the conduct of business in a very large number of industrial sectors. After a phase of euphoria and bursting of the Internet bubble, companies gradually invested this network in order to develop their activities. this is called e-business. These activities are very varied since they include consulting online bank accounts, buying and selling financial securities, paying taxes online, buying trips, etc.
Understanding this whole leads to a risk of dispersion, or even inconsistency. E-commerce is seen as a subcategory of the larger field of e-business.
Since the internet was opened to the general public, the internet has gradually transformed into an electronic distribution channel in which businesses and consumers exchange and market goods and services. Designed for military and then university purposes, the Internet was not intended as a first line for carrying out commercial transactions and replacing other distribution channels. however, this transformation of the internet into an economic space was very rapid, and it is now an essential market space. however, the place of the internet varies widely across economic sectors. after a euphoric start-up phase in the early 2000s, the internet returns to more complex realities than the simple switch from physical to electronic transactions. After presenting the current reality, the trends of electronic commerce and the factors that influence its development, it will be necessary to look into the definition of electronic commerce, as the uses of the internet for commercial purposes are many and different. it is also important to understand the variety of different business models possible in this digital space. Finally, the reasons for the use of such a channel for consumers and for businesses must be examined in order to understand the interest of this form of commerce.
In addition, many commercial transactions are carried out by telephone for distance selling. it is also possible to carry out certain commercial transactions directly from a mobile phone.
Electronic commerce is a very diverse emerging reality depending on the economic sector. It is still difficult to draw generalities valid in all economic sectors for this type of trade.
Sometimes seen as an El Dorado, electronic commerce experiences a more contrasted reality:
turnover regularly increases by around 30 to 40% per year, but electronic commerce today only represents around 60 billion euros in France. In the United States, electronic commerce (B2C) represented only 2.5% of retail trade in 2005 and 3.4% at the end of 2007 (http://www.census.gov/mrts/www/data/html/07Q3 .html).
In Europe, e-commerce in 2007 (27 countries) represented 4.5% of business turnover compared to 2.1% in 2004 with significant differences between countries: in Ireland, e-commerce represented 9.8% of business turnover , 8.5% in Norway, 7% in Great Britain, less than 1% in Slovakia and Italy.
The turnover of electronic commerce in Morocco should reach 100 million DH at the end of 2009, against 31 million DH in 2008. The number of commercial sites increased from 16 at the end of 2008 to more than 60 at the end of last October. To boost the sector, several measures have been taken, including the creation of a committee responsible for the security of computer systems reporting to the National Council for Information Technology and the Digital Economy and the development of a charter relating to online marketing sites in partnership with professionals.
Companies present on the Internet exist in large numbers and are sometimes profitable … but a leader like Pixmania only achieves in France the turnover of a handful of hypermarkets (Carrefour has more than 200 on French soil).